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Showing 7 results for Employment
Volume 1, Issue 2 (11-2012)
In the Iranian
traditional culture, women's employment is not considered as a necessary matter
because men are responsible for supplying the economic needs of family. On the
other hand women’s interests and capabilities do not limit to the domestic activities
and they can act beyond their domestic roles and much of them are interested to
participate in the socioeconomic activities. Recent researches show that for
Iranian women the social and psychological profits of employment have been more
important than economic autonomy which it brings. Hence in this research we
have tried to recognize the different aspects of this issue using the knowledge
and experiences of executive managers. We choose these managers from the
organizations of Tehran city. The research data has been gathered by interview.
The findings show that all the managers believe in the economic, social and
psychological importance of women’s employment but women had more emphasis on
the economic necessity and men had more emphasis on the social necessity of
women’s employment. Moreover most of the managers believed that women's
employment has both individual and socio economic benefits so we need to remove
the structural and cultural obstacles of women’s employment and provide the
appropriate conditions for their optimum employment.
Volume 2, Issue 4 (5-2014)
The family as a social institution has experienced dramatic changes during recent decades. These changes had influential effects on the situation of the members, especially children, within the family. Using the data from the “Time Use Survey”, conducted in urban areas in 2008 and2009, this paper aims to analyze the effect of the mother's employment on the achievement of human capital by children aged 15-19 years. Findings showed that children of employed mothers spend more time in human capital achievement activates than the others. This is in consistent withpreviousstudies. It reflects the fact that the income generated from the employment is invested in children'shuman capital.Further analysesclarified thatthe effect of the mother's employment ties with the effect of her level of education. Most employed motherswere highly educated as well. The combination of the employment and the education showed to have stronger effect on the human capital achievement. The positive effects of the mother's occupational rank, and hours spent on paid-work also revealed the positive effect of income on children's human capital achievement.
Maryam Rafatjah, Zeinab Vafadar,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (11-2014)
The rise of various religiosity and new religious identities from one hand and the prevalence of modern life styles in Iran from the other hand are due to common modern lifestyles. However, much research show that religion still plays a significant and effective role in directing lifestyles. This situation requires studying the role of religious beliefs on resisting the consumerist modern culture and understanding the relationship between religious identity and modern life styles. This research has been done among Tonkabonian women and tried to investigate the acceptance or resistance of these women against the consumerist culture or its combination with the religious culture which ever advises moderate consumption. The women studied in this research have purposively been chosen from the married ones of Tonekabon city and categorized in four types based on the amount of religiosity and employment. The research findings show some relationships between religiosity and lifestyles among them, that is, the religiosity affects accepting or resisting modern lifestyle and its components (leisure activities, mode of shopping and consumption, and the kind of social communications). It means that the more religious women were the less they followed modern lifestyle. Moreover the comparison between the religious working and non-working women shows that the employment made no difference in their approaches to mode lifestyle and consumption but in either of them, religious attitudes have had more influence on their everyday lifestyle. The findings also indicate that working women lifestyles differ from nonworking women. The working women often spend their leisure outside of home with previous planning in a more favorable and useful way, division of housework in their home is more participatory and most of them consider both applied and aesthetic criteria for shopping.
Volume 4, Issue 1 (8-2015)
After the 1979 Revolution, women in the field of public and higher education achieved substantial improvement. However, employment statistics show that their economic participation has not changed much compared to the pre-revolution era. While considering the mission of higher education, the objective of this article is trying to understand this gap and to seek ways of reducing it. The research method is based on the study of the gap through documents and interviews with educated or working women and professionals. The study concludes by stressing on the most important reasons of this disparity which could be: little transfer of skills when entering the labor market, weak professional identity among girls, as well as structural discrimination based on gender division of labor in society.
Ardahaee Ali Ghasemi, Reza Noubakht, Shafiee Ghodrati,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2018)
Though in most of the countries such as Iran the emphasis has been on rural-urban emigration, the result of censuses show emergence of new current of internal migration with the form of reverse migration or counter-urbanization in recent years in Iran. For recognition and best analysis of reverse migration, 12100 reverse migrants in demographic and economic characteristics, determinants and reason of migration with 23700 metropolis migrants as a result of two percent sample of 1390 census have been studies comparatively. Findings show that in demographic-economic characteristics, age-sex combination, marriage state and head of household, education, and the kind of employment, there is significant difference between reverse and metropolis migrants, the most affective of these differences is migrants’ employment. The superiority of skillful migrants in agriculture and ordinary labor in reverse migration and other professions in metropolis migration has caused migrants’ jobs explain two of three of occurrence changes in under-analyzed migrations. Natural and bio-environmental features of rural and deep structure, economic, commercial, political of metropolis have caused the reverse migrants who entered rural of diverse states and migrants who entered metropolis (Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Karaj, Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahvaz and Ghom) have diverse social, economic features and reasons for this migration
Mrs Saeedeh Hajali, Dr Mohammad Seyedmirzaie, Dr Mohammad Sadegh Mahdavi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (1-2020)
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tendency toward fertility and its social and cultural factors. Fertility and tendency to it are a multifaceted variable that is studied in various sciences. In this research, sociological dimension has been addressed. The dependent variable is a tendency to fertility and independent variables are divided into two parts: social variables (women's education and employment) and cultural variables (gender preference and gender equality). The statistical population of married women aged 20-44 is Tehran. The sample size is 384. The research method is scrolling.In the theoretical framework, the modernization theory, the McDonald's gender equality and the cultural rationality, and cultural evolution and cultural environment have been used. And data analysis is done using spss software. Spearman correlation and regression and path analysis were used. The results showed that there is a significant statistical relationship between social variables such as education and employment of women and cultural variables such as gender equality and gender preferences and fertility tendency, and in the results Regression showed that education was 15.3%, and female employment was 12.8 and gender preference was 11.5 of changes in fertility tendency.
Mrs Elham Habibi, Dr Mohamad Sadegh Mahdavi, Dr Mostafa Azkia,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2020)
Considering the necessity of women employment and the effective role of tourism in increasing job opportunities in this paper, we investigated the constraints provided by this job by using the experiences of women tour guide. The methodology in this study was qualitative and by using the Grounded Theory method. Data were collected by interviews and observations. Sampling method was targeted with maximum diversity (21 internal and international (input, output) women tour guides, single, married, single-parent, divorced in Tehran) with theoretical saturation criterion. The collected information was analyzed by coded interviews (open, axial and selective) and the collected concepts and categories. The most important category in this investigation was "constraint of tour leader's phenomenon for women” which covers other categories. The findings show that the gender constraints, gender constructs, low Job Status, Job instability, structural and normative pressure, were among the causes of the emergence of the phenomenon of constraints. And also, conditions such as family conflicts, multiplicity and conflict of role, redefinition of maternal and spousal roles, and the strengthening of male attributes can be among the consequences.