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Showing 27 results for Structure
Susan Bastani, Fatemeh Lolaie,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (2-2013)
The main goal
of this paper is to study the effect of media use especially
the Internet on political behavior of Tehran University students. To this end,
the effect of Internet use is investigated not only by considering the amount
of access, the utilized online sources for the news-seeking, etc., but also
through the effects of environmental and cognitive elements.
this study is composed of students from Tehran University divided into 4 groups
of Humanities, the Arts, Engineering, and Sciences. Data was collected using
the survey method through conducting 295 structured, face-to-face interviews.
Findings show that the
Internet is used more frequently than other media for
tracking political news, with nearly 90 percent of
respondents indicating that they use the Internet for the purpose of finding
political news. Participation in the demonstrations among non-traditional
political behaviors, and voting in elections among traditional political
behaviors are more common among the students than the other political
activities. The results of structural equation modeling show that the
effect of media news exposure on political behavior is through the intermediate
variable of political efficacy.
Ali Shakoori, Hamid Motamedi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (2-2013)
This paper studies socio-economic factors
affecting begging phenomenon in the city of Mashhad. So, sociological and
social policy approaches are used to clarify theoretical and conceptual
dimensions of panhandling. Also, qualitative method and related techniques such
as in deep and unstructured interviews and observation (of ways of begging) are
used to collect the research data and information. The study is based on the argument that the
phenomenon of panhandling is concerned with two groups of factors including
indirect (environmental enabling) and direct (individual) ones. The research
findings indicate that such factors as the very identity of the city of Mashhad
from the point of view of religiosity and immigration as well as features of the
very beggars such as having an unfavorable physical state, the low level of
education, family unfavorable situation, lack of basic capabilities, poverty
and unemployment were determinant factors that intensified each other and led
to the emergence of inability state and to the acceptance of begging role. The
latter is also enforced and sustained through a socio and psycho humiliating
process. On the contrary of the prevailing perspective that blames beggars in
moral degradation and lack of laziness, the paper concludes that poverty and
insolvency and related variables play higher roles in this process.
Seyed Reza Naqibolsadat, Fatemeh Qasabi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (2-2013)
This study tries to provide a virtual image of
the structure and design of
Facenama, Cloob, Facebook and Google+ social networks. The main question in
this study is which variable or variables are differ in the structure and design of social networks of
Iranian and non-Iranian. Content analysis has been used in this study. Content
analysis is a research method to describe the objective, systematic and quantitative
manifest content of communication messages used. Overall, this study showed
that most of the real images, personal pictures, lots of charm, design web
format, fixed format, output format, content, text and images, colors and
texture, heat and cold, and emotional attraction for color, many comments, more
than 10 Comments, iconic landmarks and layering of different materials used in
the structure and design of
Also, there is a significant correlation
between the actual picture type, color, format, content production, layering
content and comments with social networks of Iranian and non-Iranian.
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2014)
The present paper aims to study the structure and function of Saghanefars in Mazandaran, according bibliographical studies, archaeological surveys and ethnographical data. Saghanefar is a two storey wooden structure that is mostly built in central parts of Mazandaran, after Abolfazl name. The authors study 6 available Saghanefarin Fereidunkenar that date to Qajar and 1st Pahlavi dynasty. The results indicate symbolic expressions in Saghanefar’s structure and decoration. Socially, its users are juveniles raised form of the structure is symbolically relevant to the age of the users whereas it is endowed to Abolfazl as the rightful owner. National and religious designs indicate the effects of shiit’s emotions and Iranian epical aspects in Saghanefars structures. The motifs are symbols of social life, subsistence economics, ritual approaches, and national identity of local people. Artists aimed to transfer national and religious messages symbolically to people, by putting the motifs together skillfully. T shows cultural integration and religious attitude of local people
Volume 2, Issue 3 (2-2014)
present paper investigates the difference kind of cultural consumption among
metropolitan, urban, and rural communities. Using the statistical data of a
national survey, authors compare the cultural taste of people who live in the
villages, cities, and metropolitans. In this regard, we consider the kind of
cultural consumption in society with structural approaches and individualizing
reasoning in order to get the results.
study is based on consistency approach belongs to Piere Bourdieu, since that
his theory due to stress on socializing special groups in lifetime and the
effect of environment and family origin on people’s taste selections can
explain the difference of cultural consumption pattern in above- mentioned
regard to the findings and achieving to definite patterns, it cannot be said
that cultural life style has been individualized in Iran society since that by
individualization of a behavior in a scope, finding the pattern in that scope
becomes difficult. Also the differences show that our society is not a mass one
with a same culture. So Ulrich Beck theory and Frankfurt school view are not
confirmed referring to the findings of this research. And According to Piere
Bourdieu theory the life style, in our society, is still affected by society
Volume 3, Issue 4 (5-2015)
Social capital is one of the important capabilities and properties of organization which could help it in knowledge share and creation and by providing proper field, would equip human resources to organizational entrepreneurship's knowledge and skill, and could be one of the effective alternatives in personnel performance promotion, so the main aim of this study was to examine the effect of social capital on organizational entrepreneurship in Babol's Education & Training Office. Social statistics were 780 persons of teachers of babol's guidance schools which 250 persons were selected as sample statistics by Morgan table. Designed questionnaire after confirming validity by experts and reliability by %88 alpha cronbakh were distributed. Results of regression tests indicated that there was a significant relationship between social capital and organizational entrepreneurship in Babol's Education & Training Office. Also there is a significant relationship between two dimensions of social capital such as the quality and structure of social capital and organizational entrepreneurship in Babol's Education & Training Office. The result of Spearman correlation tests also showed that there were significant relationships between trust and relations in quality of social capital and between variables in structure of social capital such as size and extension of relation network, relations structure and social solidarity with organizational entrepreneurship. Finally it was concluded that strong and rich structure of social capital could lead to reinforce organizational entrepreneurship in Education & Training Office
Vakil Heidari Sarban,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (11-2015)
Some of researchers are believed that ICT plays important role on social development, rising of the decision-making of rural peoples, enforcement of social capital, decreasing of the effects of natural hazardous, empowerment of the rural poor peoples, promotion of the life quality and etc. the purpose of this paper is survey of ICT role on social development in the rural areas. This research from point view of purpose is developmental and from point view of identity is descriptive and from point view of type is analytical research. Target population in the study was the rural people of located in Meshkinshar County. The needed information by means of questionnaire was collected from rural people of settled in Meshkinshar County. Statistical society of research included all of rural that have had ICT office. In addition for determining sample size the rural peoples of settled in the rural areas of Meshkinshar county was used Cochran formula. Finally, the sample size of rural peoples 195 was determined. The tool of measurement was made researcher questionnaire. The content and face validity of the instrument was specified after several times review and correction by the faculty of members at university and several expertise of administrative offices. The reliability analysis was conducted and Cronbach’s alpha values for the various sections of instrument were estimated to be between 0.87 and 0.92. The results of research showed that there was a statistically significant positive relationship between social consolidation, satisfaction, social participation, employment, and responsibility, access to social services, life quality and enforcement of educational infrastructure and using of ICT services. Finally, based on the results analysis, some applied recommendations have been provided
Volume 4, Issue 3 (2-2016)
To clarify the rather general and indefinite concept of research-based schools as the criterion variable, an attempt was made based on structural and functional definitions of research-based schools to provide a framework of a conceptual map, so that a multi-dimensional concept could be selected. It considered personal, interpersonal, and structural dimensions for measuring the variable. The research method was descriptive utilizing a survey. The sampling population covered all teachers in Mazandaran province. A convenience sampling was employed to collect data from 360 testee using a researcher-made questionnaire, which was based on qualitative studies and literature reviews. To determine the validity of the technique, its content and face validities were measured. Accordingly, the content validity was 0.73 based on the Lash content validity index (1999). The Cronbach's alpha test was used to measure the reliability of the test. The reliability levels calculated for the internal and external structure of the school were 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Reducing variables was applied utilizing the exploratory factor analysis and statistical method for modeling structural equations by partial least squares. Based on the relationships among observed variables and unobserved variables, the influence of each variable on research-based schools, and the factor loadings and T-Value between the variables, the results indicated that problem-solving, curiosity, critical thinking, collaboration, information literacy, cognitive skills and self-esteem were prioritized respectively. The results for the goodness of fit estimation regarding the scale of research-based school represented that the study enjoyed a construct validity.
Khadije Safiri, Sara Shahanavaz,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (2-2016)
In the modern world, changed social norms and values with socio-economic changes. One of the most important changes is Marriage and the family structure. By creating opportunities for women in the community and access to education and employment for them has been created tendency to delay marriage age. Women tend to play a new role and redefine their identity. Purpose of this research, is studies the girls lived experience of over 35 years through the grounded theory approach. The girls emphasized on their independent social and individual identity. They have to redefine their identity. However there is a pressure of traditional identity on the girl. Family and community emphasized to their marriage. Girls also tend to marry. In addition some structural factors effect on increasing the age of marriage and be single in girls. The girls have conflict in definition and construction their traditional and modern identity. They try to that balanced between traditional and modern identity.
Mahmoodreza Rahbargazi, Mr Saied Gashool, Mr Hossein Arabian, Mrs Soheyla Ashnayi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (5-2016)
This article by using the Almond and Verba the political culture, political culture as Ryshh¬Ha and principles of participatory political culture Tby- gives studied. The approach of this paper, sociological approach is thus rooted cultural and social-political culture degree discussed. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of social capital on the political culture of citizens in the city Isfahan respectively. The research methodology used in collecting and analyzing data, survey respectively. This study was conducted on 359 residents of the city, for gathering information, using a questionnaire which its validity, the validity, and reliability, using Cronbach's alpha Marh¬ and data SPSS22 were analyzed through software under Windows environment. Social capital is divided into three variables (cognitive social capital, social capital and social capital structure), with regard to the participatory political culture that Hmbstgy¬ They are observed significant cognitive social capital among respondents participatory political culture there. In this regard, the results show that social capital Shakhtar on participatory political culture influence and increase their participation in the political culture in throughput.
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Volume 5, Issue 1 (8-2016)
(Qualitative study of women in Hamedan). Subject of the study includes women who enjoyed the highest indices of body management who resided and settled in Hamedan Province in 2015. Methodology of the study is of “qualitative” type, so that open in-depth interview in semi- structured form is used in this study for collecting data. The sampling method in this study is “purposeful” and includes women belonging to 1980s. In this study, the following variables [including marital status, level of education, ethnicity (Fars, Lor, Kurdish and Azari dialects) and also social class (upper, middle and lower)] have been taken into consideration in selecting samples. For this purpose, a number of 25 women, aged 24- 33 years, took part in this study and showed their willingness to be interviewed. According to the results of this study, factors affecting body management of women, who were born in 1980s, were classified into three levels as follows: Micro- level factors (including lack of self confidence, fear of being alone and personal satisfaction,.), Mid- level factors (social acceptance, solution to achieve many goals of girls in the future), Macro- level factors (rising Erotic Capital values among women, create differences between generations and critical review, value shift).
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Volume 5, Issue 3 (2-2017)
Over time relationships that lead to different demands, attitudes and needs of men and women and then away they are from each other. In the past, the divorce rate is quite significant and progressive process led to the neglect of other family crisis. Emotional Divorce is one of the serious damage that the most important factor in the rupture of the most fundamental structures of society namely the family. The present article seeks to emphasize the relationship of family dysfunction (disorder) to investigate the factors affecting on their emotional divorce in the city of Noshahr. The research method is a questionnaire survey and measurement. The population includes all married men and women in the city Noshahr. The sample size was estimated based on the sample of 390 people. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. The results showed that emotional divorce has a significant relationship with lack of joint consultation, lack of common synchronization, lack of common well-being and lack of common violence. all of these variables as well as the structural model explained 57 percent of alteration of the dependent variable (emotional divorce)
Jaber Baghri, Dr Mostafa Azkia, Dr Mohammad Mirzaee,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (2-2017)
Henry Ford created a system that consisted of syndicate, accuracy and expertise in company. This creative idea became Fordism phenomenon and helped the affluence andprosperity of economic inthe united state during 1940 to 1960s. He was the first person who used the production line for producing cheap automobile. Not only he created a revolution inAmerica and Europe industry, but also his proposal forintegration the mass products, high wages for workers and low price, effected on economy and societies in twenty century that called Fordism.
Fordism consequences in Iran were createdon economy, cultural and social fieldsandcaused tofundamental changes in economic, cultural and social structure such as GDP growth, developing industry and services, changes inrelations of agriculture, increasing cities and rural migration, transubstantiation of traditional culture and replacing western culture, developing new middle classes and changing in social categories and increasing communication tools and growing consumerism.
Accirding to research subject, the nearest method that help researcher to get first hand information wasoral history method. So,the data were collected by using oral history method and them by analyzing the second doucuments, we investigated the Fordism consequences sociological in Iran.
Mrs , Dr , Dr ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (5-2017)
The present study seeks to identify the potentials of the development of ecotourism in the view of condition of local community. Urmia Lake is one the largest lakes in Iran which plays an important role in the socio-economic and environmental sectors in this region. However, due to the fact that the lake has shrunk substantially, it brought about national and international concerns.
The study with focus on qualitative methods employed semi-structured interviews in persons and groups and some observations. The study population consisted of all stakeholders concerning the revival of the lake and the potentials of the development of ecotourism in the area. Purposive sampling with snowballing method was used to find the informants. The techniques of SWOT, IEA, and QSPM were employed for strategic evaluations. Based on the results of external and internal factors, it was found that the most appropriate strategy for the development of ecotourism in the basin would be adaptive strategy. Among the identified strategies, the strategy of the formation of integrated management with the function of inter-province for the restoration of Urmia Lake was suggested as the most appropriate strategy for sustainable development of the ecotourism in basin.
Javad Alibeygi, Yarmohammad Ghasemi, Hossein Mahdizadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (5-2017)
In this paper, has tried by using a descriptive- survey method and with the aim of assessing quality of life in villages of zangvan rural district. This study is based on descriptive - analytical method & and on the basis of objective is of applied studies.The study's sample consisted of all villages with more than twenty household and village rust of zangvan rural district that using formula Cochran, and with method of stratified sampling, 238 households were selected as examples to answer the questionnaire. Indicators and items of the study with regard to the questions, the research goals and similar studies that have been done in Iran in four dimensions: economic, social and environmental factors have been chosen. Analyzed data from questionnaires conducted by SPSS software using T-test and ANOVA. The results Show that based on the views of community sample, the quality of education, quality recreation, quality residential environment, quality infrastructure, quality of income and employment, environmental quality were evaluated below average. The verify quality of health and safety is average Also, in this study were observed a positive relationship between population and the quality of life in the villages.
Volume 6, Issue 1 (8-2017)
present study was done to measurement the level of rural development in Bushehr province Is an applied research that has been done using methods Multi Attribute Decision Making. Research Methodology descriptive and analytical and the data gathering method documents and collect the purposes of the research data and information on population and housing census statistics tables and forms common(especially Statistical Yearbook 2011 Bushehr province).The study population was rural regions of the province to assess the level of their development, 48 elements in the form of 5 index (infrastructure, Educational, Political-administrative, Healthcare and communicational) official statistics extracted from Bushehr Province and was evaluated using fuzzy TOPSIS technique. The findings of research analysis outlining a regional space in Bushehr Province unequal and unfair allocation of resources and rural services, showed that overall indicators, the city of Bushehr, Kangan has the highest rate of development and the city of Jam and have had late lowest rural development. In the end, to resolve the imbalance in Bushehr and social justice in rural areas of the city, was to provide practical suggestions and determined development priorities with county separation.
Volume 6, Issue 2 (11-2017)
In this article, we examine audiences’ interaction with news media. The main question is what the status of news and news media is in the everyday life of the audiences. For this purpose, using semi-structured interview method, 29 individual and group interviews with 54 Tehran citizens from different age and sex groups were conducted.
Results show that the news presence in the audiences’ everyday life is ritual. The experience of news absence makes this rituality more apparent. Interviewees simultaneously confront with news from both domestic and foreign news televisions (which are contained established official discourse in Iran and rival discourses) because of five specific reasons and uses: access to the reality of an event, access to knowledge about rival discourse, coercion and monopoly, trust on news of domestic and foreign televisions, attraction and professionalism. In addition, the pattern of news consumption among Tehranian audiences can be categorized into five levels: weak, medium, strong (discrete - purposive, continuous, non-purposive, and continuous- purposive). Moreover the level of trust on media among people who have a strong relationship with the media is low due to the variety of available discourses.
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Volume 6, Issue 3 (2-2018)
Introduction: Drying away has threatened Urmia Lake in recent years. Fading away of this lake can negatively affect the nature, economy, population structure and, all aspects of the region in general. Meanwhile, beside the natural cuases, all inhabitants around the Urmia lake have affection in shrinking of this lake and on the other side, will be affected by collapsing of this lake.So, this research has done to findout the effective sociological factors in relatedness with nature of Urmia lake between citizens of Urmia city.
Methodology: The method of this research is survey. Population consists of all Urmia citizens with the age of 15 and older than that. 384 people were selected through Cochran formula as sample. Random sampling selected as the method for sampling and a standard questionnaire used in gathering data. Spss software used in analyzing data.
Conclusion: The resuls shows that: relatedness with Urmia Lake is related with age, social capital and its subtypes. Also, results of regression analysis showed that independent variables can provide 24 percent of the relatedness with Urmia Lake.
Key words: Nature Relatedness, Urmia Lake, Social Capital, Citizenship Rights, Media.
Azar Eskandari, Mehdi Nooripoor,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (5-2018)
The aim of this study was to investigate upgrading rural to urban areas and its effects on social development indicators the Sistan Region. A causal-comparative research method was used for this purpose. Research instrument was a pre- structured questionnaire. The research population consisted of 2,851 households from different districts of Sistan Region which a sample of 333 heads of households obtained through stratified random sampling technique. The validity of the questionnaire was verified using face validity procedure and its reliability was also calculated between 0.81 and 0.91 using Chronbach's Alpha Internal Consistency Coefficient. Moreover, some analysis techniques such as paired t- test, independent t- test and covariance were used to analyze data. The results showed that social development indicators have declined during the last five years in both rural and urban areas. Furthermore, there was no positive and significant relationship between upgrading rural to urban areas in one hand and promoting social development indicators in the other hand.
Dr Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidari, Miss Hamideh Mahmoodi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2018)
The present study seeks to investigate the role of cultural-historical attractions of rural destinations in the development of cultural tourism in the rural areas. This is an applied research conducted in a descriptive-analytical method. Based on studies on two cities of Mashhad and Binalud, 14 rural areas with historical and cultural attractions were selected as the sample. Using Cochran's formula, the volume of tourists and the host community was determined 196 and 222 respectively. The scope of analysis in this study was "households". The data acquired from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical analysis methods. The findings show that in these villages, attractions, facilities, services and cultural factors higher than the moderate level, can totally have a positive effect on socio-cultural, cultural-environmental development and development of cultural tourism in general. Besides, in ARAS model for socio-cultural dimension of cultural tourism, the village of Miami was on the top, and the village of Chahak was in the last place. Also according to the research findings, despite many problems in the study area, taking care of the facilities and rural infrastructure of the villages with tourist attractions and relevant advertisements in Mashhad can make way for growth of cultural tourism