1. Balkin, J. M. (2004). Digital speech and democratic culture: A theory of freedom of expression for the information society. NYUL rev., 79, 1.
2. Boulianne, S. (2009). Does Internet use affect engagement? A meta-analysis of research. Political communication, 26(2), 193-211.
3. Chan, M., & Guo, J. (2013). The role of political efficacy on the relationship between Facebook use and participatory behaviors: A comparative study of young American and Chinese adults. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(6), 460-463.
4. Chin, W. W. (1998). Overview of the PLS Method. Online available from http://discnt.cba.uh.edu/chin/PLSINTRO.HTM. 1-3
5. Cogburn, D. L., & Espinoza-Vasquez, F. K. (2011). From networked nominee to networked nation: Examining the impact of Web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 Obama campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1-2), 189-213.
6. Corrigall-Brown, C., & Wilkes, R. (2014). Media exposure and the engaged citizen: How the media shape political participation. The Social Science Journal, 51(3), 408-421.
7. Diamond, L. (1999). Developing democracy: Toward consolidation. JHU Press.
8. E. Pinkleton, Erica Weintraub Austin, B. (2001). Individual motivations, perceived media importance, and political disaffection. Political Communication, 18(3), 321-334.
9. E. Pinkleton, Erica Weintraub Austin, B. (2001). Individual motivations, perceived media importance, and political disaffection. Political Communication, 18(3), 321-334.
10. Gastil, J. (2000). By popular demand: Revitalizing representative democracy through deliberative elections. Univ of California Press.
11. Gil de Zúñiga, H., Molyneux, L., & Zheng, P. (2014). Social media, political expression, and political participation: Panel analysis of lagged and concurrent relationships. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 612-634.
12. Hardy, B. W., & Scheufele, D. A. (2005). Examining differential gains from Internet use: Comparing the moderating role of talk and online interactions. Journal of Communication, 55(1), 71-84.
13. Holt, K., Shehata, A., Strömbäck, J., & Ljungberg, E. (2013). Age and the effects of news media attention and social media use on political interest and participation: Do social media function as leveller?. European Journal of Communication, 28(1), 19-34.
14. Kenski, K., & Stroud, N. J. (2006). Connections between Internet use and political efficacy, knowledge, and participation. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, 50(2), 173-192.
15. Kushin, M. J., & Yamamoto, M. (2010). Did social media really matter? College students' use of online media and political decision making in the 2008 election. Mass Communication and Society, 13(5), 608-630.
16. Loader, B. D., & Mercea, D. (2011). Networking democracy? Social media innovations and participatory politics. Information, Communication & Society, 14(6), 757-769.
17. Nisbet, M. C., & Scheufele, D. A. (2004). Political talk as a catalyst for online citizenship. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(4), 877-896.
18. Norris, P. (2001). Digital Divide? Civic Engagement, Information Poverty and The Internet In Democratic Societies. Cambridge University Press.
19. Putnam, R. (1995). “Bowling alone: America‘s declining social capital”, Journal of Democracy, 6, 65-78
20. Scheufele, D. A. (2002). Examining differential gains from mass media and their implications for participatory behavior. Communication Research, 29(1), 46-65.
21. Schudson, M. (1997). Why conversation is not the soul of democracy. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 14(4), 297-309.
22. Shah, D. V., Cho, J., Nah, S., Gotlieb, M. R., Hwang, H., Lee, N. J., ... & McLeod, D. M. (2007). Campaign ads, online messaging, and participation: Extending the communication mediation model. Journal of communication, 57(4), 676-703.
23. Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Harvard University Press.
24. Yamamoto, M., Kushin, M. J., & Dalisay, F. (2013). Social media and mobiles as political mobilization forces for young adults: Examining the moderating role of online political expression in political participation. New Media & Society, 1461444813518390.
25. Yang, H. C., & DeHart, J. L. (2016). Social media use and online political participation among college students during the US election 2012. Social Media+ Society, 2(1), 2056305115623802.
26. Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. M., & Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path
modeling. Computational statistics & data analysis, 48(1), 159-205.
27. Baron, R. M., and D. A. Kenny. (1986). The moderator-mediator variabledistinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic and statisticalconsiderations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6): 1173–1182.